By Audrée Montpetit, Senior Humanitarian Program Quality Advisor, CARE Ethiopia
I arrived in Borena Zone, Oromia Region, in the southern part of Ethiopia two days ago. I am here with my CARE colleagues to conduct a deeper assessment on the impact of the current drought on women, men, boys and girls.
We have talked to different groups, and even though we just had four basic questions, there was so much to listen to and to learn from.
Basically, I could have asked 10,000 questions! Today we visited Moyale woreda (a woreda is the equivalent of a district), that is bordering Kenya. It has not rained here in the past six months; only the last ten days saw some rain. However, these rains were very sparse and did not bring enough water. So some areas look greener now, while others are still very dry.
But a green pasture does not mean there is no drought. The people of Borena are pastoralists and dependent on their cattle, goats, sheep and camels. But so many cattle have died already. Even though pastoralists move them to one place in order to avoid diseases, I could see carcasses lying around, there are just too many of them.
Some people told me that this is not the first drought, of course, Ethiopians are used to the cycles of aridity and rain. However, what is really unique now is that it is not only cattle dying, but also sheep and goats. This is really concerning because goats usually resist quite well to drought since they can eat almost anything if needed (shrubs, bushes, branches, etc.).
A whole day to fetch water
There is not enough pasture, there is not enough water. This has a huge impact on women. Women are usually responsible for fetching water and they have to walk much longer distances now than before. One group of women told me that before the drought, it took them 30 minutes to get to the water point. Now they have to walk three hours – one way.
The second group mentioned that they not only need two hours instead of 15 minutes to fetch water but they also need to queue at the water point for four to six hours. Because there is very little food, they don't take anything to eat with them. They come back home hungry and exhausted. And they have to go through this ordeal every day.
In addition to spending almost the entire day getting water, women also need to collect food for their cattle. They therefore have very little time for their daily household chores. They can't properly take care of their children and provide them with food. In some cases, I saw elderly people watching small children.
Very often parents see no choice but to take their children out of school. School drop-outs are already being seen here in Ethiopia, and it is mostly girls who need to stop their education because they have to assist their mothers with household chores and take care of their siblings. One young man aged 17 told me about the drop-outs in his school. His 4th grade consisted of 82 students before the drought. Now, just 25 students are attending school – and most of them are boys.
One meal per day
I saw many cattle that are really, really weak. People told me many of them were too weak to stand up without help and how they constantly needed to support them to do it. A minimum of three strong people are needed to do this. I have not had the opportunity to see that myself but one of my colleagues sent the picture he took during one of its field visits (above).
Since there is no pasture, men need to climb trees to cut leaves and use them as fodder for their livestock. People also reduce their food intake. While most families usually had three meals every day, they now can only eat once per day. Children eat first, then the father and the mother are the last ones to receive what is left.
So it is no surprise that most women told me: "We need food." Even though there is food to buy at the market, the prices have steeply increased in the last months. In April 2011, the food index increased by 35.5 per cent in Oromia Region compared to April 2010. People just cannot afford to buy products any longer.
An important element of a pastoralist diet is milk. Since their cattle are dying and starved, there is a shortage of milk, so people have replaced nutritious milk with tea. Without any nutrients and proteins, people are at high risk of becoming weak and malnourished. In some areas, I heard of conflict that arose due to the scant resources. When pasture and water are limited and when people see their animals dying, tensions can get high.
These are all very concerning accounts. However, most people suspect that the biggest impacts have not even begun. The worse is yet to come. The rains of the past days belong to a short rainy season and after it another dry cycle that will last until September starts. People have huge fears about their future and their ability to cope with the drought.
The Ethiopian government is already responding to the drought with different interventions including food distributions. I saw one of those today, but it is clearly not enough to reach everyone who is in need right now.
What is CARE doing?
CARE is providing safe drinking water, hygiene and sanitation, nutrition and livelihood protection as well as livestock interventions in order to help families cope with current and future conditions.
Longer term work
In addition to our immediate response in the face of this current food crisis CARE International emphasises the need to tackle the long-term, underlying causes of poverty. We have been present in the region for over 25 years and are helping families to break the cycle of hunger and to adapt to the changing climate and recurring droughts.
Our ongoing work in the region includes:
- Maintenance, protection and development of water points and wells.
- Working with women in Mandera, Kenya to revive traditional food preservation techniques.
- Vaccination of animals to prevent diseases breaking out as they congregate at remaining water points.
- Helping families have more consistent sources of income by supporting them in diversifying their work.